Paco Ignacio Tae Bo Ii Bibliography Example

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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. Navotas – Navotas is a city in the Philippines located north of Manila. It is dubbed as the Fishing Capital of the Philippines because the livelihood of many of its residences were derived directly or indirectly from fishing, although it was established on December 20,1827, Navotas celebrates its foundation day every January 16. Navotas became a city after a plebiscite was held on June 24,2007, the entire region of Navotas was once part of Malabon. According to one legend, the long and narrow delta extended unbroken from north to south along the seashore, the strip of land between the former district of Tondo, Manila and this town was eaten away by the sea until an opening was made. Water began to flow through the opening, the geographical change prompted the people to refer to the place as butas, nayon ng butas, or nabutas, a Tagalog word that means breached or pierced through. What began as a natural channel developed into a regular waterway, in later years, the place came to be known as Nabotas, then Navotas. San Jose de Navotas was the given to the locality after its patron saint, Saint Joseph. On June 11,1859, a Superior Decreto established a new parish, the populace was divided into two distinct groups, the naturales and the mestizos. Mariano Estrellas was the gobernadorcillo of the naturales and Mariano Israel, today, because records are incomplete, recognition is only given to the gobernadorcillos for the mestizos. A school in honor of San Jose was built and known as San Jose Academy, December 20,1827 – The movement for separation of Navotas which was then a part of Malabon. February 16,1859 – The date when the barrios of San Jose, Navotas,1859 – Cavada, the year when Navotas became an independent town. August 6,1898 – Navotas joined the government of General Emilio Aguinaldo. June 11,1901 – Navotas was eventually incorporated into the newly created province of Rizal enacted Act,1904 - the town was again merged with Malabon. Bernardo Dagala, a native of Navotas, was elected municipal president, January 16,1906 – Navotas finally became an independent municipality with the enactment of Act. No.1442 which separated it from Malabon, January 16,2006 - Navotas celebrated its centennial June 24,2007 – Navotas became a city after a plebiscite was conducted. Navotas was originally a part of Malabon and was not separated from it by a body of water. However, sometime in the past, the turbulent waters of Manila Bay gradually eroded a weak strip of land between this town and the district of Tondo in Manila until an opening was breached. Seawater continued to flow in through this opening particularly during high tide eventually carving out the Navotas River in the process, the channel created eventually developed into a regular waterway that has come to be known as the Navotas River

3. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred, then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos

4. Metro Manila – These 5 provinces, plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, economy, education, NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines and its economic power makes the region the countrys premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37. 2% of the domestic product of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the progenitor to the present-day Metro Manila, is one of the eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The province was honored as one of the sun rays in the Flag of the Philippines, a historical province known as Manila encompasses the former pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power, in 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served as the capital from 1898-1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States, the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital, in 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed, the establishment of Quezon City meant demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, later on, Quezon City eventually declared as the national capital from 1948-1976. The tile was re-designated back to Manila through Presidential Decree No.940 owing to its significance as the seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period. During the war, President Manuel L. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor, Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezons principal lieutenant for administrative matters, the City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila, on November 7,1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No.824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was also created to manage the region, on June 2,1978, through Presidential Decree No

5. Manila Bay – Manila Bay is a natural harbour which serves the Port of Manila, in the Philippines. Manila Bay drains approximately 17,000 km2 of watershed area, with an average depth of 17 m, it is estimated to have a total volume of 28.9 billion cubic metres. Entrance to the bay is 19 km wide and expands to a width of 48 km, however, width of the bay varies from 22 km at its mouth and expanding to 60 km at its widest point. The islands of Corregidor and Caballo divides the entrance into two channels, about 2 mi towards the North and 6.5 mi wide on the South side. Mariveles, in the province of Bataan, is an anchorage just inside the northern entrance, on either side of the bay are volcanic peaks topped with tropical foliage,40 km to the north is the Bataan Peninsula and to the south is the province of Cavite. In the south channel is El Fraile Island and outside the entrance, to the immediate north and south are additional harbors, upon which both local and international ports are situated. Large number of ships at the North and South harbors facilitate maritime activities in the bay, being smaller of the two harbors, the North Harbor is used for inter-island shipping while the South Harbor is used for large ocean-going vessels. Manila Bay was connected to Laguna de Bay approximately 3,000 years ago, recurring episodic uplifts along the West Marikina Valley Fault caused the two to break up. Interaction between Manila Bay and Laguna de Bay today occurs only through the Pasig River, the bay was the setting for the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898, in which American troops led by Commodore George Dewey seized the area. This battle showcased the United States naval strength, all major Spanish ships were destroyed and captured. With its proud historic past and abundant marine life, Manila Bay became the portal and Filipino epicenter for government, economy. During the Russo-Japanese War at the close of the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, three surviving Russian protected cruisers managed to make port in then-United States-controlled Manila for repairs. However, because the US was neutral in conflict, the trio of warships. In World War II, Corregidor Island was annexed by 1942 by Japanese forces based in Manila Bay, much earlier, various other battles were fought from this naval base, including the La Naval de Manila in 1646, which finally ended Dutch attempts to seize the Philippines. It also serves a focus for recreation for Metro Manila and is a destination for walks. Much of the land fronting the bay along Metro Manila is reclaimed land now includes important sites such as the Philippine Senate. On 27 September 2011, the sea walls of Manila Bay were destroyed by the surge caused by Typhoon Pedring. Even the United States Embassy, Museo Pambata and Sofitel Philippine Plaza were submerged by the flooding and it was estimated that the damage would cost P30 million to repair

6. Radial Road 10 – Radial Road 10, more commonly referred to as R-10, is a planned network of roads and bridges that altogether would form the tenth radial road of Manila in the Philippines. It is the westernmost of the roads north of the Pasig River running north-south close to the shoreline of Manila Bay. When completed, the road would link the City of Manila with Navotas, at present, only the Tondo–Navotas segment of the road is complete. It is the segment of R-10 ever completed, thus the name R-10 is thought only as an alternative name for Marcos Road, instead of a highway network as planned. A highway linking Manila and the province of Bataan has been proposed as an extension of R-10, similar to Radial Road 1 and its segments, Roxas Boulevard and the Manila–Cavite Expressway, the highway would run along the coast of the Manila Bay north of the Pasig River. The proposed highway would be built over fishponds and would serve as flood barriers for the coastal provinces. List of roads in Metro Manila

7. Circumferential Road 4 – Circumferential Road 4 is the 4th Circumferential road in Metro Manila, in the Philippines. It passes through the cities of Navotas, Malabon, Caloocan, Quezon City, Mandaluyong, Makati, is the portion of C-4 from R-10 to Letre Road. Is a 6-lane main road in Malabon and it starts at a roundabout in the Malabon City Hall and end in the Caloocan borders. It becomes a part of C-4 after passing the C-4 Road and it is also called General San Miguel Street and Rizal Avenue. After passing the Caloocan Borders, Letre Road becomes Samson Road, Samson Road is a main road in Caloocan with 6-8 lanes. It becomes EDSA after passing the roundabout in Monumento, Caloocan and it is also called Caloocan Road and Monumento Avenue. EDSA is a 10-lane highway that utilizes Interchanges and Grade Separations, EDSA forms the majority portion of the Circumferential Road 4 in Metro Manila, passing through the cities of Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, and Caloocan. Its southern endpoint is at a roundabout near the SM Mall of Asia in Pasay and its terminus is at Monumento. The avenue was constructed during the presidency of Manuel L. Quezon, the EDSA extension from Roxas Boulevard to Jose Diokno Boulevard in Bay City in Pasay are no longer parts of C-4. C-4, like the other completed circumferential roads in Manila and in Metro Manila, starts in R-10, for the intersection list for EDSA, see Epifanio De los Santos Avenue C-5 Road C-3 Road Epifanio De los Santos Avenue Major Roads in Metro Manila Rizal Avenue MacArthur Highway

8. Bagumbayan North – Bagumbayan North was one of the fourteen barangays of the City of Navotas. Presently, it is led by an elected Chairman, the barangay is famous for the location of Centennial Park, the park where the variety show happens, the C4 park, the rotary club and the Navotas Bus Terminal. It is bounded by Brgys Navotas West to the north, Brgy, bagumbayan South to the east, Manila Bay to the west and Brgy

9. Toby Tiangco – He is the brother of Mayor John Rey Tiangco, who succeeded him as the mayor. Tiangco was born into a family on November 21,1967 in Manila. He is the son of Restituto B and he helped his parents by working at the early age with his brother John Rey Tiangco, the present mayor of Navotas City. Tiangco had his primary and secondary education at the Xavier School, Tiangco also worked as the Chief Executive Officer at the Pacific Tomich Corporation. Tiangco first sat as the vice-mayor of Navotas in early 1998, on June 30,1998, Tiangco seated as the Mayor due to electoral protest to Cipriano Bautista and seated as the Vice Mayor again on February 1,1999. On May 12,2000, Cipriano Bautista died, resulting in Tiangco becoming the incumbent mayor until June 30,2001, Tiangco ran for re-election with his running-mate Lutgardo Cruz but Patrick Joseph Javier won the Vice-mayoral seat. In 2004, Navotas was awarded as the Cleanest Municipality of NCR, Tiangco Tiangco was still the mayor of Navotas from 2004 to 2007. He focused on the issues of garbage, and the beatification of Navotas City Hall, many were amazed by the new, in 2007, Navotas become a city, resulting in Tiangco becoming the first City Mayor. John Rey Tiangco, his brother replaced him as the City Mayor in 2010 elections and he gave 900 scholarships to the Navotenos on his first term, Navotenos is free from the Major Hospitals in Manila because of his Medical Assistance Ordinance of Navotas. And built many houses for free in Tanza, Navotas, Tiangco joined United Nationalist Alliance facing the new name in Politics, Icoy de Guzman former Balut vendor. Tiangco served as the witness of the impeachment trial

10. Metropolitan Manila Development Authority – Metropolitan Manila or the National Capital Region is constituted into a special development and administrative region subject to direct supervision of the President of the Philippines. The MMDA office is located at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue corner Orense Street, Guadalupe, Makati, the agency is headed by a Chairman, who is appointed by, and continues to hold office at the discretion of, the President. The Chairman is vested with the rank, rights, privileges, disqualifications, Marcos appointed his wife, First Lady Imelda Marcos, as Governor and Ismael Mathay, Jr. as Vice-Governor. The office was located in front of the present-day GMA Network at EDSA corner Timog Avenue, Diliman, the MMC became effectively defunct when on January 9,1990, President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order No. 392, in accordance to Article 18, Section 8 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which replaced the commission with the Metropolitan Manila Authority, the Metro Manila mayors will choose from themselves as chairman. Jejomar Binay of the municipality of Makati served as its first chairman, the agency transferred to its present office at Guadalupe, Makati. Binay was followed by Ignacio Bunye of municipality of Muntinlupa in 1991, Ismael Mathay, since the elected chairman is one of the mayors of Metro Manila, the role to his constituency gave less attention. Thus, the Congress of the Philippines, composed of the Senate, President Fidel V. Ramos appointed Prospero Oreta, who did not run in the Malabon municipal election, as the first Chairman of the MMDA on May 1995 and made him independent of the Metro Manila mayors. The governing board and policy making body of the MMDA is the Metro Manila Council, the Council is the policy-making body of the MMDA. It approves metro-wide plans, programs and projects and issues rules and it may increase the rate of the allowances and per diems of the members of the Council to be effective during the term of the succeeding Council. It fixes the compensation of the officers and personnel of the MMDA, the council consists of voting and non-voting members. Voting members are the mayors of the localities in Metro Manila, as well as the Presidents of the Metro Manila Vice Mayors League, MMDA had TV and radio stations sometimes carrying the same brand, MMDA Teleradyo. They ceased on August 17,2010, MMDA Traffic Radio 1206 - Traffic updates can be heard on this station. It was started as a test broadcast on September 24,2007, MMDA TV - Traffic updates are Live Feed by Monitoring Cameras Along the streets of Metro Manila with simulcast over MMDA Traffic Radio 1206. It was started as a test broadcast on August 20,2008, to compensate for the closure of these communication mediums, the MMDA turned to social media such as Twitter to broadcast traffic updates to users following them. Live billboards, particularly at EDSA, have also constructed. The MMDA app for iOS and Android have also made available for free. Since 2014, the took over the mothballed Pasig River ferry system in anticipation of huge traffic along the metropolis

11. The Philippine Star – The Philippine Star is a print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group. First published on 28 July 1986 by veteran journalists Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal, the newspaper is owned and published by Philstar Daily Inc. which also publishes the monthly magazine People Asia and the Sunday magazines Starweek, Gist and Lets Eat. The Philippine Star is among the Philippines most widely circulated newspapers, with a circulation of 266,000 copies daily. The Philippine Star was first published seven months after the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled strongman Ferdinand Marcos, at that time, Belmonte was the publisher of a small, monthly magazine called The Star, a predecessor of the The Philippine Star. Belmonte served as the chairman of the Board of Directors, while Soliven acted as the founding publisher. Antonio Roces served as the first editor-in-chief until his resignation in 1989, the masthead of the newspaper carried the motto, Truth Shall Prevail, reflecting its editorial policy of presenting both sides of the story instead of the prevailing scoop mentality of that time. Aside from the news section, the first issue also includes the World, Nation, Money, Life. For its initial price of ₱1.75, the newspaper had a print run of “a few thousand copies”. At first, the newspaper was published from Mondays to Saturdays because Belmonte prohibited work on Sundays. To capitalize on Sunday readership, Philstar Daily, Inc. began publishing Starweek in 1987, eventually, in 1988, the newspaper added a Sunday issue in response to the demand for news on that day, while continuing its publication of Starweek. Aside from The Philippine Star, Philstar Daily, Inc. also started publishing a Filipino-language tabloid Ang Pilipino Ngayon, with the sudden death of Belmonte due to cancer on 28 January 1994, Soliven assumed chairmanship of the Board of Directors while retaining his position at publisher. He appointed Belmontes 30-year-old son, Miguel Belmonte, as vice president. On 4 August 1995, The Philippine Star became the first Philippine broadsheet newspaper to publish a front page. In 1998, the Board of Directors unanimously appointed Miguel Belmonte as president and CEO, while Soliven remained as chairman of the Board of Directors and publisher. The following year, the newspaper introduced “Hotline 2000”, which use of SMS as a means for opinion polling. It was the beginning of other endeavors that brought the newspaper to the Digital Age. In 2000, the newspaper debuted its website, philstar. com, in the same year, the company began using computer-to-plate printing system. In that year too, Miguels brother, Isaac Belmonte, was appointed editor-in-chief of the newspaper, a complimentary copy of the newspaper was given to Jollibee patrons nationwide for every purchase of a Jollibee breakfast meal

12. Philippine Daily Inquirer – The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is the most widely read broadsheet newspaper in the Philippines, with a daily circulation of 260,000 copies. It is one of the Philippines newspapers of record and it is a member of the Asia News Network. Apostol also published the Mr & Ms Special Edition, a weekly tabloid opposed to the Marcos regime. As the successor to the previous Mr. and Mrs. Special Edition, the new daily was housed in the dilapidated one-story Star Building on 13th and Railroad streets in Port Area, Manila. It was put out by 40 editors, reporters, correspondents, photographers, columnist Louie Beltran was named its editor-in-chief. The newspaper was then in documenting the campaign of Corazón Aquino during the 1986 presidential elections and, in turn. Its slogan, Balanced News, Fearless Views, was incorporated to the newspaper in January 1986 after a slogan-making contest held during the first month of the Inquirers existence. As Belmonte owned the Star Building where the Inquirer was headquartered, in February 1987, Federico D. Pascual, former assistant managing editor of the Daily Express, was named executive editor of Inquirer and was appointed editor-in-chief two years later. It was during his term in 1990 that the Inquirer took the lead from the Manila Bulletin to become the Philippines largest newspaper in terms of circulation, however, on July 1990, the Inquirer headquarters in Intramuros was damaged by an earthquake. On 5 January 1991, the transferred to the YIC building along United Nations Avenue. Inquirers longest-serving and first woman editor-in-chief, the late Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc, was appointed on June 14,1991 and she was a former columnist and editor of the Panorama Sunday magazine of Bulletin Today who was sacked for writing articles poking fun at Marcos. She edited Mr & Ms Special Edition until the fall of the Marcos regime and she is also the first editor in chief of Sunday Inquirer Magazine. Under her term, in 1995, the Inquirer moved to its current headquarters in Makati City after transferring headquarters four times, during the administration of president Joseph Estrada, he criticized the Inquirer for bias, malice and fabrication against him—this charge to the newspaper was denied. In 1999, several government organizations, pro-Estrada businesses, and movie producers simultaneously pulled their advertisements from the Inquirer in a boycott that lasted for five months. The presidential palace was widely implicated in the boycott, which was denounced by then publisher Isagani Yambot as an attack on the freedom of the press. In 2007, according to the survey conducted by AGB Nielsen, the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star followed as the second and the third most widely read papers, respectively. Magsanoc died on December 24,2015 at the St. Lukes Medical Center in Taguig City, a month after her death, Jimenez-Magsanoc was recognized as the Filipino of the Year 2015 by the Inquirer. In February 2,2016, the Inquirer appointed its managing editor Jose Ma, nolasco as the executive editor, the new top position of the newspaper, replacing the traditional editor in chief position that used by Inquirer for more than three decades

13. La Mesa Watershed Reservation – The La Mesa Watershed Reservation is a protected area that preserves the only major watershed in Metro Manila, Philippines. The park is under the joint administration, supervision and control of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and it was established in 2007 through Proclamation No.1336 issued by President Gloria Arroyo. The La Mesa Watershed encompasses an area of 2,659 hectares in the fringes of Quezon City, Caloocan and Rodriguez. It is situated on a hill or mesa at the foot of the southern Sierra Madre mountain range west of the Marikina Valley. It is about 9 kilometres north from the center of Quezon City in Diliman, the highest elevation in Quezon City is in the watersheds northern tip at 250 metres above sea level. The surrounding 2, 000-hectare forest contains more than 50 kilometres of trails and serves as the lungs of Metro Manila. It also contains the 33-hectare ecological park known as the La Mesa Eco Park and this park located at the southern edges of the watershed in East Fairview is administered by the Quezon City Parks Development and Administration Department and was opened in 2003. The La Mesa Watershed comprises a variety of ecosystems that is home to indigenous and endemic species of flora. Approximately 1,800 hectares are under forest cover and 300 hectares are open areas, pastures, several portions of the La Mesa reservoir are shallow with exposed mudflats, swampforest, reed and other swamp vegetation. The most common species found in the reservation are Malay beechwood, earleaf acacia, acacia mangium, narra, mahogany, teak, ipil-ipil, alibangbang

14. Quezon Memorial Circle – The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park, city square and a national shrine located in Quezon City, which became the capital of the Philippines from 1948 to 1976. The park is located inside a traffic circle in the shape of an ellipse. This location will be the alignment for the approved MRT-7 named Quezon Memorial MRT Station. Circle, as locals call it, has been undergoing significant changes in order to lure in more tourists both local and foreign, due to these beautification efforts of the local government the number of visitors is continuously increasing. The site was intended as the grounds of the National Capitol to be built in Quezon City to house the Congress of the Philippines. The location was part of a larger National Government Center located around Elliptical Road. The NGC was meant to house the three branches of the Philippine government, former Quezon City Mayor Tomas Morato was instrumental to the selection of the site of the memorial park. A national contest for the Quezon Memorial Project was held 1951, filipino architect Federico S. Ilustres design won the contest. Aside from the monument itself, a complex of three buildings, including a library, a museum, & a theater, were also planned to be erected. Shortly after the People Power Revolution, the Quezon City Parks Development Foundation was established during the term of then Quezon City Mayor, Brigido Simon Jr. The NPDA turned over the management of the park to the QCPDF, in the 1980s, the architecture firm of Francisco Mañosa made a masterplan for the park sometime in the 1980s. On July 1,2008, the QCPDF which has been managing the park from September 27,1988, the Quezon Memorial Shrine is an art deco-themed monument was designed by Federico Ilustre and was built during the 1950s and serves as the centerpiece of the Quezon Memorial Circle. The 66-metre shrine representing Quezons age when he died from tuberculosis stands on a thirty-six hectare elliptical lot and it houses an observation deck that can accommodate sixty people at the top through a spiral staircase which gives the visitors a panoramic view of the city. At the top of the pylons are three mourning angels holding sampaguita wreaths sculpted by the Italian sculptor Francesco Monti, the regional identity of each female angels figure could be discerned in the traditional costume they were clothed with. The winged figures atop the three pylons represented Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the gallery and the catafalque below are lit by an oculus, in turn reminiscent of Grants Tomb. The planned auxiliary structures were never built, two smaller museums, one containing the presidential memorabilia of Quezon, and the other containing items on the history of Quezon City, were installed within the Quezon Memorial Shrine itself. In the 1980s, missing, lost, or incomplete bas reliefs for the outside of the memorial were installed, a house of Manuel L. Quezon family in Gilmore, New Manila was transferred within the Quezon Memorial Circle and was made a museum. A city museum, the Quezon City Experience was also opened within park grounds in late 2015

15. Rizal Park – Rizal Park, also known as Luneta National Park or simply Luneta, is a historical urban park in the Philippines. Located along Roxas Boulevard, Manila, adjacent to the old walled city of Intramuros and it has been a favorite leisure spot, and is frequented on Sundays and national holidays. Rizal Park is one of the major tourist attractions of Manila, situated by the Manila Bay, it is an important site in Philippine history. The execution of national hero José Rizal on December 30,1896 fanned the flames of the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Kingdom of Spain, the area was officially renamed Rizal Park in his honor, and the monument enshrining his remains serves as the parks symbolic focal point. Luneta is situated at the terminus of Roxas Boulevard. To the east of the boulevard, the park is bounded by Taft Avenue, Padre Burgos Avenue, to the west is the reclaimed area of the park bounded by Katigbak Drive, South Drive, and the shore of Manila Bay. Rizal Parks history began in 1820 when the Paseo de Luneta was completed just south of the walls of Manila on a patch of land next to the beach during the Spanish rule. Prior to the park, the land was the location of a small town called Nuevo Barrio that dates back to 1601. The town and its churches, being close to the city, were strategically used as cover by the British during their attack. Because of the part they played during the British Invasion, they were cleared after the rule of the British from 1762 to 1764. The church of Bagumbayan originally enshrined the Black Nazarene, because of the order to destroy the village and its church, the image was transferred first to San Nicolas de Tolentino then to Quiapo Church. This has since been commemorated by the Traslación of the relic every January 9 and this is why the procession always start at Rizal Park. West of Bagumbayan Field was the Paseo de la Luneta named after the fortification and it was also named Paseo de Alfonso XII, after Alfonso XII, King of Spain during his reign from 1874 to 1885. Paseo de la Luneta was the center of activity for the people of Manila in the early evening hours. This plaza was arranged with paths and lawns and surrounded by a wide driveway called La Calzada where carriages circulate, during the Spanish period from 1823 to 1897 most especially in the latter part, the place became notorious for public executions. A total of 158 political enemies of Spain were executed in the park, the bronze-and-granite Rizal monument is among the most famous sculptural landmarks in the country. It is almost protocol for visiting dignitaries to lay a wreath at the monument, located on the monument is not merely the statue of the national hero, but also his remains. On September 28,1901, the United States Philippine Commission approved Act No,243, which would erect a monument in Luneta to commemorate the memory of José Rizal, Philippine patriot, writer and poet

16. Ayala Triangle Gardens – The Ayala Triangle Gardens is a 2-hectare landscaped urban park in Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is a public garden and courtyard in the center of the Makati Central Business District. It was named after its owner and developer Ayala Land, inspired by Hyde Park in London, the park, which is dotted with palms, acacia trees, and tropical foliage, is considered as one of the few green areas in Makati. The Triangle has become a point for social events in the business district. It is also home to the Tower One and Exchange Plaza and Makati Stock Exchange Building, when the airport was decommissioned in 1948 and transferred its present site in Nichols Field, the site was returned to the Ayalas and redeveloped as a commercial district. The runways were converted into roads which now form the Triangles boundaries, Ayala Avenue along its southwest, Paseo de Roxas along the north-northeast, only the airports control tower was preserved, and has since been converted into the Filipinas Heritage Library. By 1971, the Ayala Corporation moved to its new headquarters in the Triangle at the Makati Stock Exchange Center building designed by National Artist for Architecture Leandro Locsin. The rest of the Triangle was then transformed into the field known as Ugarte Field, named after the Filipino football legend of the 1930s. In the 1980s, Ugarte Field was the site of protests against the Marcos dictatorship. The Ayala Triangle Gardens is located in the Salcedo Village portion of Bel-Air Village by its border with San Lorenzo, the park has over a hundred trees of several different types, including rain trees, golden palms, fire trees, kamuning and podocarpus. It contains several art pieces created by Filipino artists Ovvian Castrillo-Hill. At the northwest corner of the Triangle is a monument to assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. designed by Anastacio Caedo, a recent addition to the Triangle is the row of al fresco restaurants behind the Makati Stock Exchange building. The southwest corner of the Triangle also contains a lot just beside the old Nielson Tower

17. Mehan Garden – Mehan Garden is an open space in Manila, Philippines. It was established in 1858 by the Spanish colonial authorities as a garden, called the Jardín Botánico. It was one of a number of botanical gardens established in Asia by European colonial powers, sebastián Vidal was the best known director of the garden. He came to the Philippines in 1871 to work in the forestry service and he was director between 1878 and his death in 1889. His obituary in Popular Science Monthly described him as practically a pioneer in the investigation of the Philippine flora, for his publications on Philippine flora, Vidal not only collected specimens, but also studied Malesian flora held in European herbaria, such as the Kew herbarium. The American occupiers of Manila decided that the site was not suitable for a garden and was more suitable for a public park. In 1913 it was renamed after John C, Mehan, who was in charge of Manilas parks and sanitation. The Mehan Garden was declared a site by the National Historical Institute in 1934. The Garden is the open space off Liwasang Bonifacio, bounded by Taft Avenue, LRT Central Terminal, the Metropolitan Theater, inside the Garden are structures such as the Lawton Park n Ride building and the Universidad de Manila

18. Paco Park – The Paco Park is a recreational garden and was once Manila’s municipal cemetery built by the Dominicans during the Spanish colonial period. It is located on General Luna Street and at the east end of Padre Faura Street in Paco, Manila, Paco Park has also become a very popular venue for weddings and receptions for couples who prefer garden-like settings. The Chapel of St. Pancratius is under the care of the San Vicente de Paul Parish, according to an on-site inscription, an order for the construction of a cemetery in Bagumbayan was issued in 1807, due to the outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Manila. Maestro de Obras Don Nicolas Ruiz developed a plan for the Paco Cemetery and it was on April 22,1822 when the cemetery was officially inaugurated, although it had been in use for two years prior to its completion. In 1859, Governor Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero proposed the extension of the cemetery to approximately 4,500 square yards, for the amount of Php 19,700, a Chinese builder won the bid to build the outer portion of the cemetery. At that time, the niches cost Php 20 for three years, which was subject to renewals as no one was granted privilege to own the niches in perpetuity. On December 30,1896, Philippine national hero Dr. José P. Rizal was interred at Paco Park after his execution at Bagumbayan, interment at the Paco Cemetery ceased in 1912. It had been the ground for several generations and descendants of those buried in the park had the remains of their ancestors exhumed and transferred to other cemeteries in Manila. During the Second World War, Japanese forces used Paco Park as a central supply, the high thick adobe walls around the park were ideal for defensive positions of the Japanese. The park was converted into a National Park in 1966 during the term of President Diosdado Macapagal, Paco Park’s grandeur was slowly restored after the war and since then has remained as a public park and promenade for the community. Paco Park and its care was placed under the responsibility of the National Park’s Development Committee during the regime of President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The program became a tradition, a weekly fare held every Friday afternoons called the “Paco Park Presents. ”The event featured and highlighted the exchange of Filipino and German musical artists who performed at Paco Park and it served as a means to strengthen the bond between Germany and the Philippines. In 1998, the celebration of Philippine-German month was moved from February to March, with the concert starting at 7, however, Paco Park Presents continues to celebrate its anniversary every February. Paco Park has also become a popular venue for weddings. The Chapel of St. Pancratius is under the care of the San Vicente de Paul Parish, Paco Park is circular in shape, with an inner circular fort that stood as the original cemetery. Its walls were made hollow to serve as niches, and as the continued to grow. The top of the walls were made into pathways for promenades. A small, domed Roman Catholic chapel was built inside the walls of the park and was dedicated to St. Pancratius

19. Pinaglabanan Shrine – Pinaglabanan Shrine is a Filipino national shrine and park located along Pinaglabanan Street in the city of San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines. Prominent within the shrine is a statue of elongated figures known as Spirit of Pinaglabanan created by Eduardo Castrillo and this is a new museum entirely devoted to Bonifacio and the Katipunan, with interactive displays and original Katipunan artifacts. The museum will present an initial list of members of the Katipunan and others who supported its cause. The names were obtained from archival sources, the museum also has an e-learning room where students from grades 5-7 will take online interactive lessons about Bonifacio and the Katipunan—the first in the country—produced by the NHCP. The activity is undertaken in partnership with the Department of Education, the accounts were selected and translated into English by the late Umberto Lammoglia

20. Valenzuela People's Park – It is built beside the Valenzuela City Government Center and the Valenzuela Town Center. The construction of this 1. 5-hectare park was started in 2014 and was opened to the public on February 14,2015. Peoples Park is bounded by two roads of the city, MacArthur Highway and A. Pablo Street. The park itself is surrounded by various landmarks, government buildings, the South Supermarket and the Valenzuela Town Center are the nearest shopping destinations for park visitors. The park is located beside the Valenzuela City Government Center

21. Washington SyCip Park – Washington Sycip Park is a public park near Greenbelt mall in Legaspi Village, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines. The park opened in 2006, and was named after Filipino accountant, in addition to many indigenous tropical trees and plants, the park contains gazebos, benches with quotes by Sycip, sculptures and a koi pond. The park is open daily from 06,00 to 22,00 PST and it is a no-smoking, no pet zone. Washington SyCip Park is rectangular in form, bounded by Legaspi Street to the north, Gamboa Street to the south, Rada Street to the west, and it is close to Greenbelt shopping centre, the Asian Institute of Management, and Union Church of Manila. Washington SyCip Park was created in 2006 by Ayala Land, the park was presented to Sycip in June 2006, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the Philippine business community. The headquarters of MACEA is located in the edge of the park. Birding, Many birds have been spotted in Washington Sycip Park, including pied fantails, koi Pond, Water bodies with orange koi fish can be found in the park, possibly a tribute to Washingtons Chinese origins. Gazebos, The park contains two gazebos, each with seating space, music, The park contains a public address system with hidden wires and soothing music playing on them. People also play the flute mornings and evenings, a number of sculptures by Filipino sculptor and artist Impy Pilapil can be found in the park. These include, Wishing Stone - a wishing stone, with a quill and water reservoir. Faith - an obelisk-like white, stone sculpture with a pointed edge aiming for the heavens, entry - a Stonehenge-style gate made of white stone. Sungka - a traditional Filipino board game played with shells, the Mangrove Nature Embrace - a colourful framework, with blue as the dominant colour, made of steel pipes. Stone turtles, - a Chinese symbol of life, stone turtles can be found at the northern and southern entrances to the park. Giant urns, - giant stone urns flank one gateway of the park, in his biography, Sycip recounted that similar huge jars were found in his family garden and he used to peek at the fish swimming inside them. Many park benches have quotes by its namesake posted on them, some of the quotes, which can be found on park benches and the walls of its gazebos, include, Washington SyCip Park is home to a number of trees including eucalyptus, rubber and calachuchi. 100 plants from the San Roque watershed were planted in the park as part of conservation efforts

22. Arroceros Forest Park – The Arroceros Forest Park is a riverside park in Manila, Philippines, located on Antonio Villegas Street in the central district of Ermita. Despite its small size, it is considered an important feature of the city and it lies in a historic area of Manila and has been called Manilas last lung, being the citys only nature park. The park is administered by the City Government of Manila in partnership with environmental group. The area occupied by the Arroceros Forest Park used to be part of Parián, in the 19th century, it was the site of the Fabrica de Arroceros, a tobacco factory owned and operated by the Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. During the American period, it was used as a garrison which housed the Signal Corps at the Cuartel de Infantería. When the Philippines gained independence after World War II, the barracks were converted into the headquarters of the Department of Education, the park was established in 1993 after the governments education department offices were transferred to its present location in Pasig. With an initial 150 century-old trees that survived the war, the park now hosts over 3,000 trees through reforestation efforts spearheaded by the Manila Seedling Bank. The groups claimed that of the 8,000 trees in the park in 2000, the park was reopened in 2007. The park has tiled pathways and concrete roads giving access to areas around the park and it also contains a fish pond and bridge, as well as a riverside walk. The park is a habitat of different bird species, such as the long-tailed shrike, pied fantail, zebra dove, Pacific swallow, yellow-vented bulbul and it also houses the Manila Education Center, the central offices for the Division of City Schools located at its southern edge. The park is located in the center of Manila, just north of the Manila City Hall adjacent to the district of Intramuros. It is within walking distance from the Central Terminal LRT Station and is right across from the Manila Metropolitan Theater and it is accessible from Rizal Park and southern Manila via Padre Burgos Avenue, and from northern Manila via Quezon Boulevard and Quezon Bridge. It is also near the Lawton Bus Terminal and the Pasig River Ferry Lawton Station

23. Balara Filters Park – The Balara Filters Park is a 60-hectare park located in the Diliman village of Pansol in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, adjacent to the University of the Philippines Diliman main campus. It is bounded by Katipunan Avenue on the west, Capitol Hills Golf and Country Club on the north, the park is one of the oldest recreation areas in Quezon City having been first opened to the public in 1953. It occupies part of the old Balara Filtration Plant complex, one of the treatment facilities for water coming from the La Mesa Dam. The park is administered by the Manila Water company in partnership with the Quezon City Parks Development, the park was named after its location in the Balara filters plant, which was then situated in the old barrio of Matandáng Balará. During Spanish colonial times, the formed part of the friar estate known as Hacienda de Dilimán owned by the Society of Jesus located between the pueblos of Caloocan and Mariquina. After the Spanish–American War, the Dilimán estate was acquired by the wealthy Tuason family, including the adjacent Hacienda de Santa Mesa and Hacienda de Mariquina. Ownership of the estate was ceded to the Philippine Commonwealth government in the late 1930s, amenities such as the rest house and swimming pools were then added between 1949 and 1959 to serve the water districts employees. These facilities were opened to the public in 1953 and instantly became a weekend destination for Manileños until the 1970s. The Metropolitan Water District was renamed the National Waterworks and Sewerage System in 1955, the complex was closed off to the public during much of the Marcos Era. In 1997, after the MWSS was privatised, the site was turned over to Manila Water which began restoration works on plant facilities, the park was reopened in 2003 under then-Quezon City mayor Feliciano Belmonte. The park is a collection of Art Deco buildings and natural landscapes centered around the Balara water reservoir, anonas Amphitheater, where National Artist Atang de la Rama once performed. Orosa Hall, a hall with glazed stone floor surrounded by ornately designed white iron bars. Italian-style chapel the MWSS Administration Building, built in the 1970s, bernadine and her cherubs a white statue of a nude water-bearer surrounded by cherubs, serving as a fountain rotunda a baby terrace named after First Daughter Zenaida Quezon. Widows Walk bathhouses Lion Head Workers Monument, in memory of the NAWASA employees who died during the construction of the filters

24. Freedom Island – Freedom Island is an artificial island in Manila Bay just off the coast of Parañaque in Metro Manila, Philippines. It was formed between 1973 and 1985 during the construction of the Manila–Cavite Coastal Road, two other islands lie immediately to the south in Las Piñas, namely Long Island and another smaller island also formed by land reclamation. The islands form the Las Piñas–Parañaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area, freedom Island covers an area of about 74 acres with an elevation of between 0 and 7 meters above sea level. The island runs along the coast from barangay Don Galo at its end near the mouth of Parañaque River into barangay San Dionisio right at the border with Las Piñas. A narrow landfill connects its southern tip to the mainland and Long Island near the toll barrier. The island consists primarily of loam and dredged material pulled from the bay and it contains a mangrove forest and swamps providing a habitat for many migratory bird species, including the Philippine duck, Chinese egret, common moorhen and black-crowned night heron. In November 1973, the Construction Development Corporation of the Philippines secured a government contract for the Manila–Cavite Coastal Road, the project to extend Roxas Boulevard south to Cavite province required reclamation of foreshore lands in Parañaque and Las Piñas. Construction of the 6.6 km-long coastal road started during the term of Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos and was completed and opened to traffic in September 1985, the island was declared a Critical Habitat by the Philippine government in 2007. It was listed as a Ramsar wetland of importance in 2013. List of islands in the Greater Manila Area

25. Manila Zoo – The Manila Zoo, formally known as the Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, is a 5. 5-hectare zoo located in Malate, Manila, Philippines that opened on July 25,1959. The Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden is home to about a thousand animals from 90 species as of April 2015. The zoos most popular resident is Mali, an Asian elephant who arrived at the zoo in 1977 as 3 year old calf transported from Sri Lanka, other Animals residing in Manila Zoo includes a Bengal tiger, Malayan civet, monitor lizard and hippopotamus. Many of the animals of the zoo were born in captivity with three month-old juveniles recently born in April 2015, the zoo management is planning to transfer many of its animals to a separate breeding area or sanctuary outside Metro Manila due to over congestion in the zoo. The zoo is planned to be just an exhibit area, the Wildlife Rescue Center serves as temporary shelter and repository for confiscated, donated, retrieved, sick, injured and abandoned wildlife species. The Wildlife Rescue Center has been the subject of scrutiny in regard to their animal welfare standards. The Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden is home to many plant collections, from the rich and diverse Philippine Islands. Botanical garden Arboretum The Kinder Zoo within Manila Zoo was a result of a partnership between Kinder Zoo, Inc. and the city government. Kinder Zoo, Inc. redeveloped 3,000 square metres of the zoo into an area named Kinder Zoo, the area was designed as a child-friendly area where children can interact with some animals of the zoo. The area featured a butterfly sanctuary, a bridge, a flamingo pond, a barn for events. The Manila Zoo by law must operate in accordance to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998, the purpose of the Act is to ensure that all terrestrial, aquatic and marine animals in the Philippines have their physical and psychological needs met in ways that promote well-being. Inquiries have been made into the compliance of the Manila Zoo with this Act, the zoo has been criticized due to its inadequate animal care and dirty surroundings. The zoo is responding with efforts to make the animal habitats as comfortable and natural as possible, such as by adding trees and vegetation, a report issued by PeTA points out the numerous issues regarding Mali being kept in captivity. In 2007 PeTA called for the boycott and closure of Manila Zoo as part of its campaign against zoos claiming that zoos are never beneficial to animals. The animal rights group supported proposals to convert the zoo into a sporting coliseum to be used by the Philippine Basketball Association, a total of 1.5 billion pesos will be allocated for the rehabilitation of the 5.5 hectare botanical park. The rehabilitation of the Manila Zoo will be implemented through a partnership with a Singaporean firm. This rehabilitation project aims to make the park a world-class recreational spot, the project will start by July 2015 and it is expected that it will take six months to finish

26. University of the Philippines Arboretum – University of the Philippines Arboretum, also known as UP Arboretum, is a botanical garden located on the campus of the University of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon City, Philippines. It lies at the part of the village of U. P. Campus between the U. P. -Ayala Land TechnoHub on Commonwealth Avenue to the south and Central Avenue, the 16-hectare man-made forest garden houses a collection of more than 9,000 tropical plants of about 77 unique species. It is one of few rainforests of its size located entirely within Metro Manila, the arboretum was originally part of a large estate owned by the Jesuits during the Spanish colonial period. The Tuason family acquired the property in the 19th century including the lands of the Santa Mesa. By 1938, the Philippine Commonwealth government purchased the land from the Tuasons after it has selected as the site of the new capital. Of the total 1,529 hectares purchased by the government,493 hectares was set aside for the extension of the University of the Philippines in Manila. The site of the arboretum was initially converted to a forest nursery by the Department of Agriculture, during World War II, this wooded area housed the American employees quarters of the United States Army. When the Philippines gained independence in 1948, the nursery was turned over to the university by the U. S. government, the administration of the arboretum was officially transferred to the University of the Philippines Diliman from the Reforestation Administration of the Department of Agriculture in 1962. The UP Arboretum is located on a plateau with an elevation of 70 metres above sea level and it lies in the middle of a natural ridge that runs northwest-southeast and is crossed by small creeks. The arboretum contains a collection of plant species, many of which are endemic. The most common found in the arboretum are kupang, mahogany, narra. Many of these trees tower as high as 20 feet or more and it is also inhabited by alibangbáng, palo santo, monkey pod and tagutagu

27. Liwasang Bonifacio – The Liwasang Bonifacio, also known by its former name, Plaza Lawton, is a city square and transport hub in front of the Manila Central Post Office in the Ermita district of Manila, Philippines. It lies at the end of Jones Bridge, MacArthur Bridge and Quezon Bridge that link the northern districts of Binondo, Santa Cruz. The plaza straddles the line between Ermita and Intramuros and is the starting point of Padre Burgos Avenue which connects to Taft Avenue. A monument in his honour now stands in the center of the plaza and it was located in the early Chinese trading village of Parián right outside the walls of Intramuros before it moved north of the Pasig River to Binondo and Santa Cruz in the late 18th century. El Fortín served as the quarters of a contingent of the Spanish infantry regiment where it is fronted by a plaza surrounded by stone benches and trees. The Plaza del Fortín also doubled as a recreation area at night where early residents would gather to hear musical performances. By the late 19th century, the fortress was acquired by the Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas and was converted into a factory called the Fabrica del Fortín and it was the largest tobacco factory in the Philippines at the time which employed more than 5,000 laborers. After the Spanish–American War, the became the head office of the Bureau of Post and was eventually replaced by the Manila Central Post Office building. The Manila tranvía had a terminal in the plaza which was then renamed Plaza Lawton after Henry Ware Lawton, a statue of Andres Bonifacio was erected here in 1963 designed by national artist Guillermo Tolentino to commemorate his birth centennial. It was also in 1963 when Plaza Lawton was renamed Liwasang Bonifacio in his memory

28. Plaza de Armas (Manila) – The Plaza de Armas is a public square in Intramuros, Manila. It is one of two plazas in Intramuros, the other being the central Plaza de Roma, and is the central plaza of Fort Santiago. It is located north of Plaza Moriones, a plaza outside Fort Santiago which was once a military promenade before it was closed in the 1863 earthquake that devastated Manila. While Plaza Moriones in Intramuros is outside the walls of Fort Santiago, military barracks and storehouses surrounded the plaza, the ruins of which stand today. Currently, the plaza is a green area surrounded by trees. The Shrine includes a statue of Rizal which was erected at the center of the plaza

29. Plaza Dilao – Plaza Dilao is a public square in Paco, Manila, bounded by Quirino Avenue to the east, and the rest of the plaza surrounded by the Plaza Dilao Road and Quirino Avenue Extension. It is one of two public spaces in Paco, the other being Paco Park. Currently, Plaza Dilao is one of five parks in the City of Manila. In Spanish colonial times, Paco was home to one of two Japanese settlements in Manila, with the located in San Miguel. It is believed that the presence of the Japanese community around the plaza eventually led it to being called Plaza Dilao, during the American period, Plaza Dilao became a transport center with the construction of the Paco railway station in 1915, directly across from the plaza. During World War II, the area was the site of a battle between Japanese and joint Filipino and American forces led by Cleto Rodriguez. Aside from the Paco railway station, two prominent organizations in the Philippines are headquartered in the vicinity of Plaza Dilao

30. Plaza Lacson – Plaza Lacson, also known by its old name, Plaza Goiti, is a public square in Santa Cruz, Manila. It is bounded by Plaza Santa Cruz and Escolta Street to the west, Carlos Palanca Street to the south, and Carriedo Street to the east. Prior to World War II, Plaza Lacson was considered the heart of Manila, and constituted part of the downtown area. These included the completion of the Santa Cruz Bridge in 1902, and the opening of the Manila tram system a few years later, which had its central terminal at the plaza. Santa Cruz was largely spared from bombing during World War II, however, heavy traffic congestion contributed to the areas decline, with businesses eventually relocating to Makati. In the 1970s, under Mayor Ramon Bagatsing, a statue of Arsenio Lacson was erected in the middle of the plaza, in 2003, under Mayor Lito Atienza, the plaza was renamed Plaza Lacson and was pedestrianized as part of a wider pedestrianization of Rizal Avenue. However, in 2007, with the election of Alfredo Lim as mayor of Manila, a number of notable buildings and structures have been built in and around the vicinity of Plaza Lacson. The building, first built in 1894 and expanded in 1957, was the headquarters of Prudential Bank until 2005, BPI continues to maintain a branch on the buildings ground floor. Other Philippine financial institutions have had their headquarters around the plaza at some point in their history, Philtrust Bank opened its headquarters at the plaza in 1950, located beside the Santa Cruz Church, and remained here until it relocated to its current headquarters along United Nations Avenue. The building still houses the banks Santa Cruz branch, located beside the Philtrust Bank building was the Ideal Theater, the first major building designed by Pablo Antonio, said to be the Philippines foremost Modernist architect. Unfortunately, the building was demolished in the 1970s to make way for a shopping mall, there are also significant transport-related structures which are in the vicinity of the plaza. List of parks in Manila List of city squares

31. Plaza de Mexico (Manila) – It is surrounded by the Aduana Building on the south, the Bureau of Immigration Building on the east and the ruins of the Bastión de Maestranza and Puerta de Almacenes on the west. The Pasig River Ferry has a station also named Plaza Mexico located northeast of the square behind the Immigration building, on the other side of the square is a statue of Adolfo López Mateos, the President of Mexico who visited the city in 1962. Until 1904, the area of Plaza de Mexico contained the walls of the Baluarte de Santo Domingo which enclosed the Aduana Building and the old Santo Domingo Church. In that year the American colonial government, seeing the need to develop and expand the Pasig River docks, decided to tear down its walls, the monument was completely destroyed during World War II. From 1962 to 1964, a series of exchanges between the Philippines and Mexico was held to celebrate the Year of Mexican-Philippine Friendship. This resulted in the creation of several landmarks in the city dedicated to Mexico and they include Plaza de Mexico and its monuments, the statue of the Mexican hero of liberation Miguel Hidalgo on Bonifacio Drive, and the renaming of Taft Avenue Extension in Pasay to Mexico Road

32. Plaza Miranda – Plaza Miranda is a public square bounded by Quezon Boulevard, Hidalgo Street and Evangelista Street in Quiapo, Manila. It is the plaza which fronts the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, one of the churches of the City of Manila. Inaugurated in its current form by Mayor Arsenio Lacson in 1961, it is named after José Sandino y Miranda, despite fronting the Quiapo Church, Plaza Miranda and the streets surrounding it is known as a center for fortune-telling and the sale of lucky charms and amulets. Plaza Miranda has an area of 5,358 square meters, bounded by the Quiapo Church to the north, Quezon Boulevard to the east, Hidalgo Street to the south and Evangelista Street to the west. The two grand arches are separated by smaller arches which form a covered colonnade, incorporating into their design the sea lion found in the coat of arms. A larger, more elaborate grand arch was constructed on the plazas south side, at the intersection of R. Hidalgo. Two of the four corners contain historical markers. The plaza is lit at night through the use of floodlights installed at strategic points throughout the area. This and a system are controlled electronically from a control room located within the Lacson Underpass. Aside from the Quiapo Church, several notable buildings are located within the vicinity of Plaza Miranda. The most notable buildings within the vicinity are the F&C Tower, which formerly housed the headquarters of the Philippine Savings Bank. The Paterno entrance meanwhile is located at the northeast corner, beside the Quiapo Church, List of parks in Manila List of city squares

33. Plaza Moraga

Он снова ответил Да. Мгновение спустя компьютер подал звуковой сигнал. СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТОЗВАН Хейл улыбнулся. Компьютер только что отдал ее Следопыту команду самоуничтожиться раньше времени, так что ей не удастся найти то, что она ищет.


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